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Construction Machines description

Construction machines are industrial machines used to perform all the actions that requires earthmoving work, that is a change in the ground shape generally to build something or manage the territory to carry on excavations.

Excavators or excavator machines

  • Wheeled: it is used when a limited load capability is needed, but is required a good speed. A typical example is when the excavation area is quite distant from the point in which the material needs to be unloaded, on the ground or on a truck to be definitely removed.
  • Crawler: it is used when more load capability or stronger penetration in the soil is required. The moving speed is less in comparison with the wheeled excavator. The main use is on the caves or mines, where the loader can reach a wide area without frequent changes of position.
  • Articulated and walking excavator: this type is provided with articulated legs and brackets that allow a perfect position when the soil is really inclined, or when the normal excavator cannot function, for example inside canals.
  • Dragline: used in particular to minesweeping, it is an excavator with a long bracket reaching in the distance; in this case the bucket is positioned to the end of the bracket, then it is lowered on the ground and dragged towards the machine thanks to a cable-supported system, while collecting materials on the ground.
Excavators or excavator machines

Loader

A loader is a mechanical earth mover used to move and load construction material (soil, sand, asphalt, snow, demolition waste etc.) The loader can pick up a lot of material thanks to the inferior edge (blade) and to its capacity, which is superior with respect to other excavating machines of the same size. The frontal loader is linked to the main structure by means of two hydraulic arms. If needed, it is possible to change the frontal instrument and to install other tools (e.g. calipers to pick up trunks, pipelines etc.) Loaders come in different categories, for example:

  • Wheel Loader: thanks to the excellent relation between gear modality and work hydraulics, it allows for extremely efficient and quick operations.
  • Crawler loader: it is used when an increased load capacity or a deeper penetration is needed. Compared to the wheel loader, the crawler loader has diminished forwarding speed.
  • Compact loader: it is used for the transport and especially for the loading of material on transport trucks.
  • Skip Loader: it is composed by a frontal load bucket and by a posterior scraper. It is used for the loading or for the flattening of soil with modest loads and work capacity, when the room to manoeuvre is small.
Loader

Backhoe

Backhoes are machines used for earth moving, digging and e backfill works. Its main characteristic, which makes it different from other mechanical earth movers, is the presence of both an anterior blade and of an excavating arm on the posterior side. A backhoe is a very adaptable machine, because it combines the two most useful and most important instruments of earth moving machines on a agile and relatively small vehicle. Thanks to these characteristics, backhoes are among the most common machines in construction sites.
Backhoes can be fixed (i.e. with a rigid framework and with a steering system on the anterior wheels) or articulated (also called flexible), because of the two articulation points in the center of the vehicle. The functioning of the two articulation points is similar to the ones installed on dumpers and on scrapers - where one articulation point allows for a rotation on the vertical axis (i.e. the steering), and the other one allows for a rotation on the horizontal longitudinal axis, allowing the two axes to rest on two non-parallel plans at the same time. Backhoes are divided in two categories :

  • Rigid
  • Articulated
Backhoe

Bulldozer

Dulldozers are a crawling mechanical earth movers used to move big amounts of soil. A bulldozer has a big movable concave blade, with points; it is used to excavate and to level soil, to remove construction residue etc.

Bulldozer

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